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Henceforth, our fathers and the remnant the Washitaw (Ether's people) celebrated together the feast of Tabernacle (in 107BC at the site in Los Lumos New Mexico). 

 

THE SEVEN FESTIVALS OF THE CHEROKEE,

1 THE NEW MOON OF SPRING (when the grass begins to grow) APRIL, (Passover) & (Feast of Unleavened Bread)

2 NEW GREEN CORN CEREMONY also called SELUTSUNGISTISTI (when the corn was first fit to eat) AUGUST, (Feast of Weeks or Shavout)

4 GREAT NEW MOON CEREMONY also called NUWATIEGWA (first new moon of autumn the Cherokee New Year) SEPT/OCT, (Blowing of the Trumpets or Rosha shana)

5 RECONCILATION AND FRIENDS MADE CEREMONY also called ATOHUNA (ten days after last great new moon ceremony ended) OCT, (Day of Atonement or Yom Kipor)

3 RIPE CORN CEREMONY also called DONAGOHUNI (mature or ripe green corn) SEPTEMBER,

6.  BOUNCING BUSH FEAST also called ELAWATALEGI (time determined at first new moon of autumn) OCT/NOV (Feast of Tabernacle or Succoth) and 

7. is THE UKU DANCE also called THE PEACE CHIEF'S DANCE were the peace chief's wore all yellow and re-consecrated himself as chief ,this replaced the great new moon ceremony for that year ever 7TH YEAR(The Sabbath Year). THE SEVEN FESTIVALS OF THE CHEROKEE ALWAY HELD DURING A NEW MOON.

 

 

 

Not far from New Mexico's Rio Puerco River, there exists a small, flat-topped mountain.  The site is replete with the remains of more than a hundred small middle-eastern dwelling structures.  There is an equinox observation site on the eastern slopes of the mountain, and numerous other inscriptions in ancient Hebrew.  

 

. 

 

 The father of Mormon (writer of the book of Mormon) 

 

 the father of Moroni (writer of the book of Moroni) FATHER OF THE HOPI  NATION MARRY A DAUGTHER OF THE VIKING PEOPLE.  Hopi Indians,  (Moki)  Tribe of Pueblo Indians (q.v.) located in northeastern Arizona.

Ho-pi (hope) n. , pl. -pis or -pi [[Hopi Hopitu , lit., good, peaceful]] 1 a member of a North American Indian people living in NE Arizona 2 the Uto-Aztecan language of this people --adj. designating or of the Hopis or their language or culture. 

 

Then the Lamanites (Mayans) attack and scattered us into tribal families (of the Nephites: Cowchan, Hopa, Makah, Osage, Sia, Skokamish, Tolowa, Wishham, and Yurok) [Zarahemla of the kingdom of Judah (Choctaw, Creek, Chicksaw, Catawba, Cherokee, Shawnee and Seminole)] (Nahuatl people: Jicarillas, Navaho, Maricopa, Pima, Papago, Qahatika, Mohave, Yuma, Walapai, Havasupai, Apache-Mohave, Yavapai, Teton Sioux, Yanktonai, Assiniboin, Apsaroke (Crows), Hidatsa, Mandan, Arikara, Atsina, Piegan (Blackfeet & Bloods), Cheyenne, Arapaho, Yakima, Klickitat, Interior Salish, Kutenai, Nez Perces, Wallawalla, Umatilla, Cayuse, Chinookan Tribes, Salishan Tribes of the coast, Chimakum, Quilliute, Willapa, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Naida, Hopi, Yurok, Karak, Wiyot, Tolawa, Tututni, Shasta, Achomawi, Klamath, Kato, Wilaki, Yuki, Pomo, Wintun, Maidu, Miwak, Yokuts, Southern California Shoshoneans, Dieguenos, Plateau Shoshoneans (Paiute), Washo, Tiwa, Tano, Kres, Tewa, Zuni, Chipewyan, Cree, Sarsi, Southern Cheyenne, Oto, Comanche, Nunivak, and the Kotzebue)  also of those of the people of Ether called the Washitaw (or Waxachachie, Witchita, Eutaw, Etowah, and Ouachita) Nation and they broke to (Guaranis,Tupis,Apache, Adena, Hokum, Soupi, Coushattas, Lakota, Algonquian, Pascagoula, Natchez, Biloxi, Opelousas, Tunicas, Tensas, Arkansas, Chactoos,)

1000 AD

The Nephites (Toltecs) began to know great abundance and enjoy the generous gifts of the land, as had been foretold by Quetzalcoatl.  "He has great powers.  He has made us rich.  We have not known hunger since he arrived.  Where he places his eyes and hands, everything is abundance and beauty."  Tula grew.  People came from afar to admire its growth.  Many asked permission to settle down and enjoy its abundance, which was distributed according to the needs of the people.  They were all content because they all had more than they had ever had.  Many worked.  They were busy all day. 

Quetzalcoatl had spent six years among the Nephites (Toltecs).  The granaries were full when he decided:  "There is prosperity and abundance in all the land.  Let us extend it beyond the mountains.  We shall go to the land of the Lamanites (Chichimecs).  It is time to take my mission to them.  I shall make them better, I shall gather them in towns,  I shall teach them to till the land and to build their homes." 

 

"Let us leave them in their land as they are now," Topiltzin argued.  "They are barbarous; their life is violent and disorderly.  They roam freely, like the wind in the mountains and the plains, with nothing to keep them.  Leave them where they are.  There is much that we must do in our own land." 

 

"I do not belong to this land alone.  They are all my friends, and I am to give to all of them.  I shall take the gods of Tula to them," Quetzalcoatl said.

 

"Think carefully.  You do not know them.  They do not understand words.  They are like savage animals, like jaguars," Topiltzin insisted.

 

"I shall go," said Quetzalcoatl.  "My life must be accomplished.  This time you will not accompany me because you do not have the will to go.  I shall leave soon with some of my followers." 

 

"Do not go with so few people!  I shall accompany you with skillful warriors who are used to killing Chichimecs and avoiding their traps," Topiltzin insisted.

 

"I am not going there with violence.  I shall go to them as I came here, to take them the gifts of life and the doctrine of sin and redemption."

 

"You have not spoken of sin and redemption for a long time," Tatle remarked.  He had been listening intently to the dialogue, and was then close to seventeen years of age.  "You have not come near the Tree you planted in the square in a long time.  The Tree has no shoots, it has not grown, it looks sad and lonely."

 

"During this time, Tatle, I have often thought of it.  There was confusion in my spirit.  Now the Tree orders me to spread good in other lands, to make other happy.  It will soon have shoots." replied Quetzalcoatl.

 

   El Castillo, or the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, the "feathered serpent" in the Nahuatl language of the Toltecs and Aztecs, is the outstanding feature of Chichen Itza (1000-1200). It heralds the coming of the Toltecs from Central Mexico and their dominance of the Maya of Old Chichen (800-1000). The themes of art and architecture duplicate Tula, the original capital in the highlands, with emphasis on the images and symbols of the feathered serpent. The Quetzalcoatl portal supported the lintel over the entrance to the Temple of the Warriors, and the memoirs of the associated military orders of Jaguar and Eagle are carved into the Court of the Thousand Columns. The head, body, and tail of the creator deity--the giver of corn and civilization--outline the grand staircase rising to the temple atop El Castillo. Inside, the red Jaguar throne is encrusted with pieces of precious jade.

(Black Indian warriors painting from the site of Cacaxtla in Mexico that dates from 650 to 900 A.D found in 1975 and excavated by the National Autonomous University of Mexico)

 

1100 AD

 

 By AD 1100 the Toltecs had conquered much of central and southern Mexico and had established their capital at Tula in the Mesa Central. They also built the city of Teotihuacan near present-day Mexico City. At about the same time, the Zapotecs controlled the Oaxaca Valley and parts of the Southern Highlands. The cities they built at Mitla and Monte Alban remain.

 

So it was that the people of the Lamanites and the Amlicites that joined them were forced further south into South America along side of the coastline of Bolivia and also Peru, and there they established what was called the Inca Empire.

 

The Inca Empire was founded (AD c1100) by Manco Capac at what is now Cuzco, Peru.  Inca society was based on agricultural production and its religion centered on sun worship. They were great builders and constructed magnificent cities, such as Machu Picchu, and a system of roads, irrigation, and mountainside terraces. There were also extensive mining and advanced metallurgy

                                                                                                                                                    

1200 AD                                                                                                            

 

The Aztecs had the most advanced civilization in North and South America at the time   but they did not originate it. When they invaded the region, they took over the culture of earlier, advanced peoples-- the Toltecs, Zapotecs, and others. The barbarian Aztecs came to Mexico in about AD 1200. 

 

1250 AD

In 1975, 2 Negroid skeletons were found in the U.S. Virgin Islands. One wore a pre-Columbian Indian wrist band. They were found in layers dated to about A.D. 1250. In 1974, Polish craniologists revealed that no fewer than 13.5% of the skeletons from the pre-Columbian Olmec cemetery of Tlatilco were Negroid.1

1400 AD

For the people of the Americas the arrival of Columbus was hardly a blessing.  On his first day, October 12, 1492, the explorer wrote in his Diary "I took some of the natives by force." He later found the original inhabitants to be "tractable," "peaceable," and concluded "there is not in the world a better nation." His response as a European was to say that Indians must be "made to work… and adopt our ways."

The Christopher Columbus whose unique seamanship and courage had opened the Americans to European penetration also began the transatlantic slave trade.  He started by shipping ten chained Arawak men and women to Seville, Spain.  He wrote enthusiastically to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella about the business possibilities: "From here, in the name of the Blessed Trinity, we can send all the slaves that can be sold." When he loaded 1100 Tiano men and women aboard four Spanish ships, the crowding and the stormy Atlantic crossing took a fearful toll.  Only three hundred survived.  But Columbus and Spain had decided to continue to profitable slave trade from the Americas.  Seville became the slave capital of Spain.

Spanish priests were the first to denounce the horrors of bondage. 

The empire of Inca expanded slowly until the early 15th century when a period of rapid conquests began. The empire reached its zenith under the rule of Huayna Capac (1493-1525), who divided the empire between his sons, Atahualpa (q.v.) and Huascar (q.v.).

1500 AD

The picture shows how Black Indians lived before 1500.

 

                                                                                                  By 1502, runaway Black Indians (not Africans) had joined other native communities in Haiti. In the 16th century, Brazilian Amerindians captured a Portuguese slave ship and helped the other Black Indians to escape.12

The black Indian connection also adds a sharp new dimension to the issue     slave resistance. The first evidence of Native American unity appear                         in a l503 communication to Spain's King Ferdinand from Viceroy Nicolas de Ovando of Spain's headquarters on Hispaniola, now Haiti. Ovando complained that his enslaved blacks "fled among the other Indians and taught them bad customs and never could be captured." In the last four words the governor is describing more than a problem with untrustworthy servants or the difficulties of retrieving runaways in a rainforest. From his thin line of white colonies, he sees Europeans confronting a new bi-racial enemy that has a base of support in the interior. The budding coalition has new recruits joining each week. 

In 1511 Dominican Friar Montesinos called slavery a mortal sin and said cruelty and tyranny over Indians could not be justified by Christians

At this time the Lamanites attack planning to destroy us completely when there appeared the our white brothers with the sign of the cross ( we thought  ) spoke of by the prophet Rupave of the people of Ether that was carved on a rock which the  says that three white men would come one the true white brother with two helpers bringing the symbol of the sun (not son ) and the cross than the great purification would begin  and they attack and destroy the Lamanites (Mayan) and enslaved them and we look at them as saviors.

 

Because Quetzalcoatl  predicted the return of the saviors to Mexico, which happened to coincide with the arrival of the conquistadores, and Cortez astutely assumed the mantle of the deity to befuddle the superstitious Montezuma and complete the Spanish conquest. 

When Hernando Cortez and his Spanish soldiers reached the Valley of Mexico in 1519, they found a splendid city standing on an island in a lake. Three wide causeways led to huge white palaces and ornate temples on pyramids. 

   This proud city was Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztecs. Its grandeur showed their power and wealth. From the city their armies went out to conquer. To the city came tribute from subject peoples--foodstuffs, pottery, gold, jade, turquoise, and ornaments. Beside porters marched captive soldiers who were to be sacrificed on the altars of Aztec gods. 

   When the Spanish arrived, the Aztecs ruled the area from the Gulf of Mexico to the Cordilleras and southward into present-day Guatemala. However, their emperor, Montezuma II, did not have a firmly organized empire. When vassal tribes or cities revolted, he had no governors or standing armies to control them. He had to reconquer them. This weakness in government helped the Spaniards conquer the warlike Aztecs in about two years. Cortez was aided throughout his campaign by rebellious tribes. (See also Montezuma II; Cortez, Hernando.) 

  

 

   Religion and the state among the Maya were as closely interconnected as among the Spaniards who conquered them. This convergence of customs and beliefs facilitated the merging of religions and the acceptance of authority during the colonial period. The Indians were converted to Roman Catholicism, but pagan practices persist, particularly in rural villages. In ancient days religious rites were conducted in temples by priests, and the government was administered by the aristocracy. The palace at Sayil and the governor's palace at Uxmal represent the residences of the landed elite.

 

In consequence of this civil war a part of the Itz?migrated south to Lake Pet? in Guatemala, where they established a kingdom with their capital and sacred city of Flores Island in the lake.

In clockwork of military and legal reflexes, European authorities sought to eradicate Black Indian contacts and pit Red against Black. In l523 a Royal Order to Hernando Cortez banned Black Indians from other Indian villages. "Division of the races is an indispensable [control] element," said a Spanish officer. "Between the races we cannot dig too deep a gulf," announced a French official.

Meanwhile in the Inca Atahualpa and Huascar subsequently warred against each other and, when the Spanish conquistador F. Pizarro arrived in South America (1532), Atahualpa had just defeated his brother. After being received by Atahualpa on friendly terms, Pizarro captured and executed him (1533), entered Cuzco, and with his small force easily subjugated this empire of 10-12 million people.  At the time of the Spanish conquest the Incas had a well-advanced civilization organized in a rigid hierarchy, over which the emperor ruled with absolute (and divine) authority.  Under the Spanish, the Inca religion was forcibly suppressed, a colonial government was installed, and the native population was drawn away from agriculture for work in the mines and colonial towns.

Centuries before the Declaration of Independence talked of natural rights and sanctioned rebellion against tyranny, Red and Black Indian tribal alliances acted on these concepts as they pursued their American dream in the mountains beyond the white settlements dotting the coastline.  In 1537 Viceroy Mendoza of Mexico, lamenting an insurrection by Black Indians, admitted, "the (Red) Indians are with them." As slave revolts rocked the new European outposts in the Americas.

A few years later Bishop Las Casas, who had witnessed countless Indian massacres by his fellow Spaniards, blamed greed for the horrors:  "They kill them [Indians] because they want to be rich and have much gold, which is their sole aim." Las Casas concluded that in the New World Spaniards had become devils and Indians were the only true Christians. 

In the mid-16th century Cherokee Black Indians, a North American Indian tribe once located in the US Southeast, were first visited by the Spanish. 8 A 16th century French colonial dispatch also stated "Between the races we cannot dig too deep a gulf".9   

Forced labor in Spanish mines in the Americas was so harsh that the average worker died before he was twenty-six.  To meet their need for more laborers, Europeans looked next to Africa. But Afterwards, they came to destroy us and enslaved us also.

 

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Amariel Family Publishing 2006

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