Henceforth, our fathers
and the remnant the Washitaw (Ether's people)
celebrated together the feast of Tabernacle (in 107BC at the site in Los Lumos New Mexico).
FESTIVALS OF THE CHEROKEE,
1 THE NEW MOON OF
SPRING (when the grass begins to grow) APRIL, (Passover) & (Feast of Unleavened Bread)
2 NEW GREEN CORN
CEREMONY also called SELUTSUNGISTISTI (when the corn was first fit to eat)
AUGUST, (Feast of Weeks or Shavout)
4 GREAT NEW MOON
CEREMONY also called NUWATIEGWA (first new moon of autumn the Cherokee New Year)
SEPT/OCT, (Blowing of the Trumpets or Rosha shana)
5 RECONCILATION AND
FRIENDS MADE CEREMONY also called ATOHUNA (ten days after last great new moon
ceremony ended) OCT, (Day of Atonement or Yom Kipor)
3 RIPE CORN
CEREMONY also called DONAGOHUNI (mature or ripe green corn) SEPTEMBER,
6. BOUNCING BUSH FEAST also called ELAWATALEGI
(time determined at first new moon of autumn) OCT/NOV (Feast of Tabernacle or Succoth) and
7. is THE UKU DANCE also called THE PEACE CHIEF'S DANCE were
the peace chief's wore all yellow and re-consecrated himself as chief ,this
replaced the great new moon ceremony for that year ever 7TH YEAR(The Sabbath Year). THE SEVEN
FESTIVALS OF THE CHEROKEE ALWAY HELD DURING A NEW MOON.
Not far from New Mexico's Rio Puerco River, there exists a small, flat-topped mountain. The site is replete with the remains of more
than a hundred small middle-eastern dwelling structures. There is an equinox observation site on the
eastern slopes of the mountain, and numerous other inscriptions in ancient
The father of Mormon (writer of the
book of Mormon)
the father of Moroni (writer of the book of Moroni) FATHER OF THE HOPI
NATION MARRY A DAUGTHER OF THE VIKING PEOPLE. Hopi Indians, (Moki) Tribe of Pueblo Indians (q.v.) located in
Ho-pi (hope) n. , pl. -pis or -pi
[[Hopi Hopitu , lit., good, peaceful]] 1 a member of
a North American Indian people living in NE Arizona 2 the Uto-Aztecan language
of this people --adj. designating or of the Hopis or their language or culture.
Then the Lamanites (Mayans)
attack and scattered us into tribal families (of the Nephites: Cowchan, Hopa, Makah, Osage, Sia, Skokamish, Tolowa, Wishham, and Yurok) [Zarahemla of the kingdom of Judah (Choctaw, Creek,
Chicksaw, Catawba, Cherokee, Shawnee and Seminole)] (Nahuatl people: Jicarillas, Navaho, Maricopa, Pima, Papago,
Qahatika, Mohave, Yuma, Walapai,
Havasupai, Apache-Mohave, Yavapai, Teton Sioux, Yanktonai, Assiniboin, Apsaroke (Crows), Hidatsa, Mandan, Arikara,
Atsina, Piegan (Blackfeet & Bloods), Cheyenne, Arapaho, Yakima,
Klickitat, Interior Salish, Kutenai,
Nez Perces, Wallawalla,
Umatilla, Cayuse, Chinookan Tribes, Salishan Tribes of the coast, Chimakum,
Kwakiutl, Nootka, Naida,
Hopi, Yurok, Karak, Wiyot, Tolawa, Tututni, Shasta, Achomawi,
Klamath, Kato, Wilaki, Yuki, Pomo,
Wintun, Maidu, Miwak, Yokuts, Southern
California Shoshoneans, Dieguenos,
Plateau Shoshoneans (Paiute),
Washo, Tiwa, Tano, Kres, Tewa,
Zuni, Chipewyan, Cree, Sarsi,
Southern Cheyenne, Oto, Comanche, Nunivak,
and the Kotzebue)
also of those of the people of Ether called the Washitaw
(or Waxachachie, Witchita,
Eutaw, Etowah, and Ouachita) Nation and they broke to (Guaranis,Tupis,Apache,
Adena, Hokum, Soupi, Coushattas, Lakota, Algonquian, Pascagoula, Natchez, Biloxi,
Opelousas, Tunicas, Tensas, Arkansas, Chactoos,)
The Nephites (Toltecs) began to know great abundance and enjoy the
generous gifts of the land, as had been foretold by Quetzalcoatl. "He has great powers. He has made us rich. We have not known hunger since he
arrived. Where he places his eyes and
hands, everything is abundance and beauty." Tula grew. People
came from afar to admire its growth.
Many asked permission to settle down and enjoy its abundance, which was
distributed according to the needs of the people. They were all content because they all had
more than they had ever had. Many
worked. They were busy all day.
spent six years among the Nephites (Toltecs). The granaries were full when he decided: "There is prosperity and abundance in
all the land. Let us extend it beyond
the mountains. We shall go to the land
of the Lamanites (Chichimecs). It is time to take my
mission to them. I shall make them
better, I shall gather them in towns, I shall teach them to till the land
and to build their homes."
"Let us leave them in
their land as they are now," Topiltzin
argued. "They are barbarous; their
life is violent and disorderly. They
roam freely, like the wind in the mountains and the plains, with nothing to
keep them. Leave them where they
are. There is much that we must do in
our own land."
"I do not belong to
this land alone. They are all my friends, and I am to give to all of them. I shall take the gods of Tula to them," Quetzalcoatl said.
carefully. You do not know them. They do not understand words. They are like savage animals, like jaguars,"
"I shall go,"
said Quetzalcoatl. "My life must be
accomplished. This time you will not
accompany me because you do not have the will to
go. I shall leave soon with some of my
"Do not go with so
few people! I shall accompany you with
skillful warriors who are used to killing Chichimecs
and avoiding their traps," Topiltzin insisted.
"I am not going there
with violence. I shall go to them as I
came here, to take them the gifts of life and the doctrine of sin and
"You have not spoken
of sin and redemption for a long time," Tatle
remarked. He had been listening intently
to the dialogue, and was then close to seventeen years of age. "You have not come near the Tree you
planted in the square in a long time.
The Tree has no shoots, it has not grown, it
looks sad and lonely."
"During this time, Tatle, I have often thought of it. There was confusion in my
spirit. Now the Tree orders me to spread
good in other lands, to make other happy. It will soon have shoots." replied
or the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, the "feathered serpent" in the
Nahuatl language of the Toltecs and Aztecs, is the
outstanding feature of Chichen
Itza (1000-1200). It heralds the coming of the Toltecs from Central Mexico and
their dominance of the Maya of Old Chichen
(800-1000). The themes of art and architecture duplicate Tula, the original capital in the highlands, with
emphasis on the images and symbols of the feathered serpent. The Quetzalcoatl
portal supported the lintel over the entrance to the Temple of the Warriors, and the memoirs of the associated
military orders of Jaguar and Eagle are carved into the Court of
the Thousand Columns. The head, body, and tail of the creator deity--the giver
of corn and civilization--outline the grand staircase rising to the temple atop
El Castillo. Inside, the red Jaguar throne is encrusted with pieces of precious
(Black Indian warriors
painting from the site of Cacaxtla in Mexico that dates from 650 to 900 A.D
found in 1975 and excavated by the National Autonomous University of Mexico)
By AD 1100 the Toltecs
had conquered much of central and southern Mexico and had established their capital at Tula in the Mesa Central. They also built the city of Teotihuacan near present-day Mexico City. At about the same time, the Zapotecs
controlled the Oaxaca Valley and parts of the Southern
Highlands. The cities they
built at Mitla and Monte Alban remain.
So it was that the people
of the Lamanites and the Amlicites that joined them were forced further south
into South America along side of the coastline of Bolivia and also Peru, and there they established what was called the Inca
The Inca Empire was
founded (AD c1100) by Manco Capac at what is now Cuzco, Peru. Inca society was based on
agricultural production and its religion centered on sun worship. They were
great builders and constructed magnificent cities, such as Machu Picchu, and a system of roads, irrigation, and mountainside
terraces. There were also extensive mining and advanced metallurgy
The Aztecs had the most
advanced civilization in North and South America at the
time but they did not originate it. When they
invaded the region, they took over the culture of earlier, advanced peoples--
the Toltecs, Zapotecs, and
others. The barbarian Aztecs came to Mexico in about AD 1200.
In 1975, 2 Negroid skeletons were found in
the U.S. Virgin Islands. One wore a pre-Columbian Indian wrist band. They were
found in layers dated to about A.D. 1250. In 1974, Polish craniologists
revealed that no fewer than 13.5% of the skeletons from the pre-Columbian Olmec
cemetery of Tlatilco were Negroid.1
For the people of the Americas the arrival of Columbus was hardly a blessing. On his first day, October 12,
explorer wrote in his Diary "I took some of the natives by force." He later
found the original inhabitants to be "tractable," "peaceable," and concluded
"there is not in the world a better nation." His response as a European was to
say that Indians must be "made to work… and adopt our ways."
The Christopher Columbus whose unique
seamanship and courage had opened the Americans to European penetration also
began the transatlantic slave trade. He
started by shipping ten chained Arawak men and women
to Seville, Spain.
He wrote enthusiastically to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella about the
business possibilities: "From here, in the name of the Blessed Trinity, we can
send all the slaves that can be sold." When he loaded 1100 Tiano
men and women aboard four Spanish ships, the crowding and the stormy Atlantic
crossing took a fearful toll. Only three
hundred survived. But Columbus and Spain had decided to continue to profitable
slave trade from the Americas. Seville became the slave capital of Spain.
Spanish priests were the first to
denounce the horrors of bondage.
The empire of Inca expanded slowly until the early
15th century when a period of rapid conquests began. The empire reached its
zenith under the rule of Huayna Capac (1493-1525),
who divided the empire between his sons, Atahualpa (q.v.) and Huascar
The picture shows how Black Indians lived
runaway Black Indians (not Africans) had joined other native communities in Haiti. In the 16th century, Brazilian
Amerindians captured a Portuguese slave ship and helped the other Black Indians
The black Indian
connection also adds a sharp new dimension to the issue slave resistance. The first evidence of Native American unity appear in a l503
communication to Spain's King
Ferdinand from Viceroy Nicolas de Ovando of Spain's headquarters
on Hispaniola, now Haiti. Ovando complained that his enslaved blacks "fled among
the other Indians and taught them bad customs and never could be
captured." In the last four words the governor is describing more than a
problem with untrustworthy servants or the difficulties of retrieving runaways
in a rainforest. From his thin line of white colonies, he sees Europeans
confronting a new bi-racial enemy that has a base of support in the interior.
The budding coalition has new recruits joining each week.
In 1511 Dominican
Friar Montesinos called slavery a mortal sin and said
cruelty and tyranny over Indians could not be justified by Christians
At this time the Lamanites attack planning to destroy
us completely when there appeared the our white brothers with the sign of the
cross ( we thought ) spoke of by the
prophet Rupave of the people of Ether that was carved
on a rock which the says that three
white men would come one the true white brother with two helpers bringing the
symbol of the sun (not son ) and the cross than the great purification would
begin and they attack and destroy the
Lamanites (Mayan) and enslaved them and we look at them as saviors.
Because Quetzalcoatl predicted the return of the saviors to
Mexico, which happened to coincide with the arrival of the
conquistadores, and Cortez astutely assumed the mantle of the deity to befuddle
the superstitious Montezuma and complete the Spanish conquest.
When Hernando Cortez and
his Spanish soldiers reached the Valley of Mexico in 1519, they found a splendid city standing on an island in a lake.
Three wide causeways led to huge white palaces and ornate temples on
This proud city was Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztecs. Its grandeur showed their
power and wealth. From the city their armies went out to conquer. To the city
came tribute from subject peoples--foodstuffs, pottery, gold, jade, turquoise,
and ornaments. Beside porters marched captive soldiers who were to be
sacrificed on the altars of Aztec gods.
When the Spanish arrived, the Aztecs ruled
the area from the Gulf of
Mexico to the Cordilleras and southward into present-day Guatemala. However, their emperor, Montezuma II, did not have
a firmly organized empire. When vassal tribes or cities revolted, he had no
governors or standing armies to control them. He had to reconquer
them. This weakness in government helped the Spaniards conquer the warlike
Aztecs in about two years. Cortez was aided throughout his campaign by
rebellious tribes. (See also Montezuma
II; Cortez, Hernando.)
Religion and the state among the Maya were
as closely interconnected as among the Spaniards who conquered them. This
convergence of customs and beliefs facilitated the merging of religions and the
acceptance of authority during the colonial period. The Indians were converted
to Roman Catholicism, but pagan practices persist, particularly in rural
villages. In ancient days religious rites were conducted in temples by priests,
and the government was administered by the aristocracy. The palace at Sayil and the governor's palace at Uxmal represent the residences of the landed elite.
of this civil war a part of the Itz?migrated
south to Lake Pet? in Guatemala, where they established a kingdom with
their capital and sacred city of Flores Island in the lake.
In clockwork of
military and legal reflexes, European authorities sought to eradicate Black
Indian contacts and pit Red against Black. In l523 a Royal Order to Hernando
Cortez banned Black Indians from other Indian villages. "Division of the
races is an indispensable [control] element," said a Spanish officer.
"Between the races we cannot dig too deep a gulf," announced a French
Meanwhile in the Inca Atahualpa and Huascar subsequently warred against each other and, when
the Spanish conquistador F. Pizarro arrived in South America (1532), Atahualpa
had just defeated his brother. After being received by Atahualpa
on friendly terms, Pizarro captured and executed him (1533), entered Cuzco, and with his small force
easily subjugated this empire of 10-12 million people. At the time of the Spanish conquest the Incas
had a well-advanced civilization organized in a rigid hierarchy, over which the
emperor ruled with absolute (and divine) authority. Under the Spanish, the Inca religion was
forcibly suppressed, a colonial government was installed, and the native
population was drawn away from agriculture for work in the mines and colonial
the Declaration of Independence talked of natural rights and sanctioned rebellion
against tyranny, Red and Black Indian tribal alliances acted on these concepts
as they pursued their American dream in the mountains beyond the white
settlements dotting the coastline. In
1537 Viceroy Mendoza of Mexico, lamenting an
insurrection by Black Indians, admitted, "the
(Red) Indians are with them." As slave revolts rocked the new European
outposts in the Americas.
A few years
later Bishop Las Casas, who had witnessed countless
Indian massacres by his fellow Spaniards, blamed greed for the horrors: "They kill them
[Indians] because they want to be rich and have much gold, which is their sole
aim." Las Casas concluded that in the New World
Spaniards had become devils and Indians were the only true Christians.
In the mid-16th
century Cherokee Black Indians, a North American Indian tribe once located in
the US Southeast, were first visited by the Spanish. 8 A 16th
century French colonial dispatch also stated "Between the races we cannot
dig too deep a gulf".9
Forced labor in Spanish mines in the Americas was so harsh that the average worker
died before he was twenty-six. To meet
their need for more laborers, Europeans looked next to Africa.
But Afterwards, they came to destroy us and enslaved us also.